We have been keeping you up-to-date with information on the developments in India and the world that have a bearing on our health and wellbeing, our lives and livelihoods, during these difficult times. Rajesh K. P. is an assistant professor in the School of Livelihoods and Development, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Hyderabad. Though not much larger than Maryland, Kerala has a population as big as California's and a per capita annual income of less than $300. The floodgates were opened in 2015 when the Congress party did away with environmental clearance for quarries in existence for three years. The HDI has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports. This level of learning by non-Brahmin learning was not seen in other parts of India. In 1967 in his second term as Chief Minister, EMS again pushed for reform. Kerala, in southwestern India, has been so successful in “flattening the curve” that many now speak admiringly of a “Kerala Model” for handling public-health emergencies. 13. Strikes, agitations, and stirs, a sort of wildcat job action, are so common as to be almost unnoticeable. Last Updated: 10th January, 2021 20:56 IST MP Govt To Adopt Kerala's Responsible Tourism Mission Model Taking a cue from Keralas successful responsible tourism (RT) mission, Madhya Pradesh government has expressed interest to implement the model, aimed at development of village and local communities, eradicating poverty and giving emphasis to women empowerment. [citation needed], According to the India State Hunger Index, Kerala is one of the four states where hunger is only moderate. harv error: no target: CITEREFMcKibben2006 (, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, promotes the subject in a subjective manner, personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay, "Introduction: Is Kerala's Development Experience a Model? Kerala had long ago recognised the importance of palliative care as can be seen from the growth of community-based care units. In Kerala the birth rate is 40 per cent below that of the national average and almost 60 per cent below the rate for poor countries in general. In colonial times, Kerala exhibited little defiance against the British Raj. The land reform initiative abolished tenancy and landlord exploitation; effective public food distribution that provides subsidised rice to low-income households; protective laws for agricultural workers; pensions for retired agricultural laborers; and a high rate of government employment for members of formerly low-caste communities. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Kerala was the first Indian state to report a case of COVID-19 – a medical student … Criticisms. For example, Kerala’s Model is failing in creating job Market. COVID-19: As the much-touted 'Kerala Model' crumbles pro-left cyberbullies grow restless over criticism of govt? [10] Kerala's birth rate is 14 per 1,000 females and falling fast. The high rate of education in the region has resulted in a brain drain, with many citizens migrating to other parts of the world for employment. [citation needed], Kerala had been a notable centre of Vedic learning, having produced one of the most influential Hindu philosophers, Adi Shankaracharya. A set of high material quality-of-life indicators coinciding with low per-capita incomes, both distributed across nearly the entire population of Kerala. His theory of four stages of cognitive development, first presented in the mid-20th century, is one of the most famous and widely-accepted theories in child cognitive development to this day. This is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdeveloped (low development) countries. A school for girls was established by the Maharaja in 1859, which was an act unprecedented in the Indian subcontinent. Nation hunger index of India is 23.31. A set of wealth and resource redistribution programmes that have largely brought about the high material quality-of-life indicators. We also reiterate here the promise that our team of reporters, copy editors, fact-checkers, designers, and photographers will deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. KERALA, MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT. High levels of female education have not led to an equally high participation of women in the labour force or in governance, even though they participate equally in elections. The dark side of the Kerala model of development. The book provides a consolidated exploration and critique of the Kerala model, which usually has been portrayed as linear with the grand narrative of progress, development and democracy. research-based model of moral development in academic psychology and in schools of education. The report from 'The Economist' has ranked 40 countries across the world on end-of-life care facilities on the basis of 24 indicators on healthcare environment and availability, cost and quality of care. The Hindu has always stood for journalism that is in the public interest. However, its role as an alternative model of development makes Kerala of huge importance in the question of whether a similarly radical set of … Unemployment is very high. A comprehensive analysis of the Kerala Model of Social Development to date. The India Human Development Report, 2011 prepared by Institute of Applied Manpower Research, placed Kerala on top of the index for achieving highest literacy rate, quality health services and consumption expenditure of people. Studying Kerala's combination of Government support and civic involvement in end-of-life care, a number of similar models are being tried out in Ethiopia, Bangladesh, Seychelles and even in Switzerland. The volunteers in these units, after training can provide psychological, social and spiritual support. Though there was growth in NSDP during the nineties, it was actually a jobless growth. The Vedic learning of the Nambudiris is an unaltered tradition that still holds today, and is unique for its orthodoxy, unknown to other Indian communities. Pulapre Balakrishnan is Professor, Ashoka University, Sonipat and Senior Fellow, IIM Kozhikode. The result was that a bank once considered Kerala’s own, doing the majority share of the banking business and offering support for development activities, thus became merely a regional office of the biggest bank in the country, with all its surplus savings from the State becoming part of SBI’s general pool of resources. Literary criticism - Literary criticism - Historical development: Although almost all of the criticism ever written dates from the 20th century, questions first posed by Plato and Aristotle are still of prime concern, and every critic who has attempted to justify the social value of literature has had to come to terms with the opposing argument made by Plato in The Republic. The model is that of Lawrence Kohlberg (197la, 1981, 1984) who proposed a developmental series of cognitive stages, or levels, in human moral development. UK topped the list followed by Australia and New Zealand. A pilot project began in the Ernakulam region, an area of 3 million people that includes the city of Kochi. Characterized strong social indicators such as education, healthcare, high life expectancy, low infant mortality and low birth rate, often at levels comparable to developed countries despite having a low per capita income. Only seven – Australia, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland, Switzerland, Turkey and UK – have national policies, while four others – Austria, Canada, Ireland and Italy – are in the process of drafting one. It is this that marks the NNPC out from more medical-oriented and expensive systems in use elsewhere," said the report. He started the Centre for Development Studies in Thiruvananthapuram in 1971, by the request of the Kerala Chief Minister C Achutha Menon.[3][4]. The Hindu. Jean Piaget : Piaget’s theory of child development is still one of the most widely accepted in modern psychology. [citation needed], The rulers of the princely state of Travancore (were at the forefront in the spread of education. However, here is a state caught in a web of paradoxes that has no parallel in any other Indian state. Since the late 1970s, a number of international development scholars have held up the south Indian state of Kerala as a “model of development” (cf. Kerala Model of development is based on bottom up and state driven development as against “Gujarat Model” which encapsulates primary growth and private-entrepreneurship driven development. The development standard in Kerala is comparable to that of many first world nations, and is widely considered to be the highest in India at that time. By Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel / … The origins of the term 'Kerala Model' go back to a study done in the 1970s by economists associated with the Centre for Development Studies in Thiruvananthapuram. Floods were not new to Kerala, which receives high rainfall. However, in feudal Kerala, though only the Nambudiris received an education in Vedas, other castes as well as women were open to receive education in Sanskrit, mathematics and astronomy, in contrast to other parts of India. Another decade down the road, the Millennium Development Goals, embracing many of the Kerala Model's features – with the notable omission of land reforms – became the new charter of development. CONCLUSION • Kerala…..a place that offers real hope for the future of the Third World • Despite its achievements, the model is heavily criticised for the low industrial development and high levels of unemployment. Popular protest to hold public officials accountable is a vital part of life in Kerala. Health Development indicators- Kerala & India −2009[20]. This development came about despite a low per capita income. In pre-colonial Kerala, women, especially those belonging to the matrilineal Nair caste, received an education in Sanskrit and other sciences, as well as Kalaripayattu, a martial art. The fact is that Kerala Model of Development have not improvement or little in others development indicators. The ‘Kerala Model’ is about systematic State investment in education and health. Kerala’s social attainments, sometimes referred to as a ‘model’, brought to scholarly attention by the UN study Poverty, Unemployment and Development Policy (1975), has occupied a … The “Kerala model of development” has won wide international attention for its achievements in regard to social development and, to a certain extent, environmental sustainability. They need to acknowledge that their consumption pattern must change as it has adversely impacted the natural environment, the consequences of which have begun to hurt them. In this task they are unlikely to be guided by the State’s politicians and intellectuals who led them into this cul-de-sac in the first place. Unemployment is very high. There are over 3,300 government and private medical institutions in the state, with 297 beds per 100,000 population, the second highest in the country (after Karnataka). As a result poorer households are crowded out of safe locations on the plains to precarious ones on the hills. This model was later imbibed by Christian missionaries initiated by the then Archbishop of Verapoly, Bernardo (Giuseppe) Baccinelli, O.C.D., paved the way for an educational revolution in Kerala by making education accessible to all, irrespective of caste or religion. You can support quality journalism by turning off ad blocker or purchase a subscription for unlimited access to The Hindu. Find mobile-friendly version of articles from the day's newspaper in one easy-to-read list. [citation needed]. The report said twenty nine out of the 40 countries studied have no formal palliative care strategy, revealed the report. [7] With virtually all mothers taught to breast-feed, and a state-supported nutrition programme for pregnant and new mothers, infant mortality in 2011 was 12 per thousand, compared with 91 for low-income countries generally. [citation needed], The prevalence of education was not only restricted to males. This year it is the landslides that have caused most deaths. Kerala has the highest per capita public debt among States, implying that we are passing on the bill for our own maintenance to future generations. To some, this was enough information because he experienced it firsthand and numerous times, however; others are not as accepting. Life expectancy at birth in Kerala is 75 years compared to 64 years in India and 77 years in the US. In fact many Ayurvedic Physicians (such as Itty Achudan) were from the backward Ezhava community. Then in 2017 the Pinarayi Vijayan government relaxed the rules for quarrying further. The extraordinary events that we have witnessed this year range from fountains sprouting out of the earth due to the hitherto unknown ‘water piping’ to constructed structures shifting, physical phenomena not yet widely understood. Hunger index score of Kerala is 17.66 and is next only to Punjab. 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In the overall score, India with a score of 1.9 out of 10 ranked the 40th, behind countries such as Slovakia, Malaysia, Turkey, Brazil and even Uganda. The government continued to press the issue, aiming for "total literacy," usually defined as about 95 per cent of the people being able to read and write. 28 Jun, 2013, 08.17 PM IST Subscribe to Morning Filter & Evening Wrap newsletter. These are the same problems that are facing other countries. 1. The Economist has lauded the 'Kerala Community Model' in healthcare. Keywords: Kerala Model of Development, Health, Neo-liberalism, Privatization, Exclusion 1. It is characterized by achievements in social indicators such as education, healthcare, high life expectancy, low infant mortality and low birth rate, by the creation of productive social infrastructure rather than materialistic infrastructure. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the book sheds new light on the paradoxes of the Indian state and its model of economic development. Public policy has failed miserably to regulate land use including rampant quarrying, which destabilises the earth’s surface, with political patronage. That resulted in numerous Sree Narayana schools and colleges, Nair Service Society schools. From the starting of this index, Kerala has scored high, comparable to developed countries. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. Moreover, The Economist has patted the Kerala Government for providing palliative care policy (It is the only Indian state with such a policy) and funding for community-based care programmes. What was new compared to the times of equally high rainfall in the early part of the last century was the flooding due to inept dam management and the vulnerability of the terrain induced by the pattern of land use. “Kerala model” has been referred to as a paradox of social development and economic backwardness. In 2018 Kerala was overwhelmed by an unprecedented natural event. This prompted a continuing debate on the meaning of the Kerala ‘model’ of development for adivasis, in which a consensus seems to have risen that adivasis are the victims of Kerala's development experience and in which their current mobilisation is seen as the first time in history that their interests are being politically articulated. COVID-19: As the much-touted 'Kerala Model' crumbles pro-left cyberbullies grow restless over criticism of govt? [5][6], The basis for the state's impressive health standards is the statewide infrastructure of primary health centres. [12], District-wise details of health care institution and beds for as per the 1991 census[13], According to a white paper on the Quality of Death, released by the Economist Intelligence Unit in 2010, has projected the community model healthcare system from Kerala as a beacon of hope for providing palliative care services. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: In a novel initiative during the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government is launching the 'Kerala Dialogue' -- a debate series on new concepts and development models. Truth is that public policy is part of the problem. The Kerala model is markedly different from the conventional development thinking which focusses on achieving high GDP growth rates. Critics of Erikson's stages argue that Erikson did not have the necessary data to create this theory. Introduction. Finally, Kerala has not done so well when viewed through the lens of gender justice. He did no statistical research, only naturalist observations. They are a relatively recent phenomenon, pointing to the role of uncontrolled economic expansion. Political history in Kerala shows a trend of an alternating elected Communist led Left Democratic Front governments and Congress led United Democratic Front governments, which results in an increase in public welfare activities, much to the benefit of the common man. However, in 1990, Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq changed the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies. Economy professor K. N. Raj was the main person behind this study. It is often also argued that the “Kerala model” would become unsustainable, given the mounting fiscal problems of the State. In collaboration with Raj's close colleague, Indian economist Amartya Sen, he persuaded the UNDP to carry out work on Human Development Indicators (HDIs), which started playing a large role beside GDP in the framing of development policies. Anthropologist Bill McKibben says "Though Kerala is mostly a land of paddy-covered plains, statistically Kerala stands out as the Mount Everest of social development; there's truly no place like it. Despite having high standards of human development, the Kerala Model ranks low in terms of industrial and economic development. The distinctive feature of the popularly acknowledged ‘Kerala model of development’ is on account of achievements in social sectors like education, health care, etc. The “old” Kerala model, preoccupied with redistributive policies, failed, however, to induce economic development. Especially when you have zero population growth and and emigrating population, that is a serious problems. In the late 1970s Kerala ranked number one in 15 out of 21 Indian states with respect to selected infrastructural and basic services. K. K. George (1993:119) cites figures indicating that Punjab spends more per capita on education and The fact is that Kerala Model of Development have not improvement or little in others development indicators. Kerala model of development experience had been characterized by high social sector development with poor economic performance. Female life expectancy in Kerala exceeds that of the male, just as it does in the developed world.,[11] Kerala's maternal mortality rate is :Total: 1.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1990), lowest in India. In 1991-92 the state of Punjab, with more than twice the per capita income of Kerala, had 33 PQLI (Physical Quality of Life Index) points less than Kerala. To enable wide dissemination of news that is in public interest, we have increased the number of articles that can be read free, and extended free trial periods. More specifically, The rural literacy rate was almost identical, and female literacy, at 66 per cent, was not far behind. The ongoing debates on the question of participatory democratic process through decentralization led by the state of Kerala, India, as new social arrangement in the regime of polity, has been a critical components in the domain of alternative Two consecutive years of a natural calamity exacerbated by human action are a revelation that the Kerala Model has run its course. will not conduct an exercise like NRC. The rice paddies had both produced food and served as gargantuan sinks for rainwater. ", "Is the Kerala Model Sustainable? Within a year, it was hoped, the illiterates would read Malayalam at 30 words a minute, copy a text at 7 words a minute, count and write from 1 to 100, and add and subtract three-digit numbers. Based on the pertinent observation of Amartya Sen that the State seemed to have attained high social development at a relatively low level of income by comparison to the rest of India, it was soon appropriated by the political class including artists and intellectuals who collaborate with state power. Criticism of the Kerala Model has been based on its several failures. By Gladwin Emmanuel Gladwin Emmanuel / … A select list of articles that match your interests and tastes. Kerala's residents live nearly as long as Americans or Europeans. [16][17] Hans Rosling also highlighted this when he said Kerala matches United States in health but not in economy and took the example of Washington, D.C. which is much richer but is less healthy compared to Kerala.[18][19]. Kerala is a development model that is touted in various corners of the developing world. Raj's seminal contribution to development policy thus had worldwide repercussions.[3][4]. [25], British Green activist Richard Douthwaite interviewed a person who remembers once saying that "in some societies, very high levels – virtually First World levels – of individual and public health and welfare are achieved at as little as sixtieth of US nominal GDP per capita and used Kerala as an example". The statistic is composed from data on Life Expectancy, Education and per-capita GDP (as an indicator of Standard of living) collected at the national level using a formula. On 4 February 1990, 13 months after the initial canvass, Indian Prime Minister V. P. Singh marked the start of World Literacy Year with a trip to Ernakulam, declaring it the country's first totally literate district. Any lack of enthusiasm was greeted with intolerance, similar to what ultra-nationalists display today when challenged on their claims about India. 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