[152] Around eight percent of India's waterways are found in Kerala. The accidents are mainly the result of the narrow roads and irresponsible driving. [214] A study commissioned by the Kerala State Planning Board, suggested that the state look for other reliable sources of income, instead of relying on remittances to finance its expenditure. [171]:12 Three of the world's Ramsar Convention listed wetlands—Lake Sasthamkotta, Ashtamudi Lake and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands—are in Kerala, as well as 1455.4 km2 of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached. [33] From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. He won the war against the Devas, driving them into exile. Angus Stewart, woodburn The Religious attitude: A psychological study of its differentiation, 1927. In November 2015, the Ministry of Urban Development selected seven cities of Kerala for a comprehensive development program known as the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT). [337] Comparatively higher spending by the government on primary level education, health care and the elimination of poverty from the 19th century onwards has helped the state maintain an exceptionally high HDI;[338][339] the report was prepared by the central government's Institute of Applied Manpower Research. [429][430][431][432][433] Following the recommendations of the Wood's despatch of 1854, the princely states of Travancore and Cochin launched mass education drives mainly based on castes and communities, and introduced a system of grant-in-aid to attract more private initiatives. [32], Kerala was alternatively called Kerala as well as Malabar. As of 2016[update], the LDF is the ruling coalition; Pinarayi Vijayan of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the Chief Minister, while Ramesh Chennithala of the UDF is the Leader of Opposition. [443][444] It was developed to support ICT enabled education for schools in the state. Kerala has also given birth to numerous actors, such as Mohanlal, Satyan, Prem Nazir, Madhu, Sheela, Sharada, Miss Kumari, Jayan, Adoor Bhasi, Seema, Bharath Gopi, Thilakan, Mammootty, Vijaya Raghavan, Kalabhavan Mani, Indrans, Shobana, Nivin Pauly, Sreenivasan, Urvashi, Manju Warrier, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram, Murali, Shankaradi, Kavya Madhavan, Bhavana Menon, Prithviraj, Parvathy (actress), Jayasurya, Dulquer Salmaan, Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Jagathy Sreekumar, Nedumudi Venu, KPAC Lalitha, Innocent and Fahad Fazil. [320] Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 by adding 15.6 million people to reach 29.1 million residents in 1991; the population stood at 33.3 million by 2011. The Zamorin allied with Arab and Chinese merchants and used most of the wealth from Kozhikode to develop his military power. [562] In 2006, Kerala attracted 8.5 million tourists, an increase of 23.68% over the previous year, making the state one of the fastest-growing popular destinations in the world. Cross reference: The Syrian Christians by S.G. Pothen; from an article by Nidhin Olikara on nasrani.net. [282] Roads in Kerala include 1,812 kilometres (1,126 mi) of national highway; 1.6% of the nation's total, 4,342 kilometres (2,698 mi) of state highway; 2.5% of the nation's total, 27,470 kilometres (17,070 mi) of district roads; 4.7% of the nation's total, 33,201 kilometres (20,630 mi) of urban (municipal) roads; 6.3% of the nation's total, and 158,775 kilometres (98,658 mi) of rural roads; 3.8% of the nation's total. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956. Oommen is the shortened version of Thommen which is Indianisation or say Malayalam version ofThomas, one of the disciples of Jesus who as per the legend brought gospel to India in 1st century AD. Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; David de Beth Hillel, 1832; Lord, James Henry 1977. [223] Kerala supplies 60% of the total global produce of white coir fibre. [237] Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. The region's prominence in trade was noted in the works of Pliny as well as the Periplus around 100 CE. [55][56]:79 Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. [56]:62 In 1991, Kerala became the first state in India to be recognised as completely literate, although the effective literacy rate at that time was only 90%. Arya Rajendran is likely to be announced as the CPI(M)'s pick for Thiruvananthapuram mayor. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, K… Major Malayalam periodicals include Mathrubhumi, India Today Malayalam, Madhyamam Weekly, Grihalakshmi, Vanitha, Dhanam, Chithrabhumi, and Bhashaposhini. Kunhali, V. "Muslim Communities in Kerala to 1798" PhD Dissertation Aligarh Muslim University (1986). [113] The Kochi ruler sued for peace with Anizham Thirunal and Malabar came under direct British rule until India became independent. Women aged 10 to 50 are barred from entering the hill shrine’s sanctum sanctorum. This article is about the Indian state. Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Old Home for the Coir Workers, Kerala Coir Workers Welfare Fund Board, North of Collectorate, Alappuzha, 688011. [390][391][392] Kerala Muslims are generally referred to as the Mappilas. [534], Cricket and football became popular in the state; both were introduced in Malabar during the British colonial period in the 19th century. [503][504][505][506][507] Later, writers like O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, Arundhati Roy, Vaikom Muhammed Basheer, have gained international recognition. Kerala has the highest population of Christians among all the states of India. [318], Kerala is home to 2.76% of India's population; with a density of 859 persons per km2, its land is nearly three times as densely settled as the national average of 370 persons per km2. In some coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr. P.S. Experiments with Prakriti; our own & life around. Naming convention The repetitive nature is mostly due to the naming convention followed: The eldest son/daughter carrys the name of the paternal grand father/mother. Roxy Mathew Koll is a Climate Scientist at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology. [468][469] It is a local festival of Kerala[470] consisting of a four-day public holidays; from Onam Eve (Uthradam) to the fourth Onam Day. [329] Kerala is one of the first states in India to form a welfare policy for the transgender community. [181] "How the Portuguese used Hindu-Muslim wars - and Christianity - for the bloody conquest of Goa", "Beating the retreat: The Malabar Special Police is no longer the trigger-happy unit", "Physical and Anatomical Characteristic of Wood of Some Less-Known Tree Species of Kerala", "INDIA – SILENT VALLEY RAINFOREST UNDER THREAT ONCE MORE", "UN designates Western Ghats as world heritage site", "Kerala Boat Ferries Lone Passenger To Help Her Take Exam", "Worst floods in nearly a century kill 44 in India's Kerala state amid torrential monsoon rains", "Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at Kariavattom, Kerala", "Hydromet Division Updated/Real Time Maps", "Opportunities in participatory planning to Evolve a Landuse Policy for Western Ghats Region in Kerala", "Biological Diversity of Kerala: A survey of Kalliasseri panchayat, Kannur district", "World's oldest teak trees dying in Kerala", "View of A checklist of the vertebrates of Kerala State, India | Journal of Threatened Taxa", https://ildm.kerala.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Revenue-Guide-2018.pdf, "Revenue department, government of Kerala", "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)", "Kerala Sustainable Urban Development Project", "Cities best to earn a living are not the best to live: Survey", "Legislative Assembly of Kerala: Official Website", "An Introduction to local self governments in Kerala", "Kerala – A Case Study of Classical Democratic Decentralisation", "Economy – Kerala – States and Union Territories – Know India: National Portal of India", "Provisional results of economic census 2005", "Nap on HDI scores may land Kerala in an equilibrium trap", "The Perils of Social Development without Economic Growth: The Development Debacle of Kerala, India", "Kerala's Gulf connection: Emigration, remittances and their macroeconomic impact 1972–2000", "GCC residency cap may force lakhs to return", "Remittances: Kerala drives dollar flows to India", "NRI deposits in Kerala banks cross Rs 1 lakh crore", "New Evidences from the Kerala Migration Survey, 2018", "Migrant worker population in Kerala touches 2.5 m", "Constraints on Diffusion and Adoption of Agro-mechanical Technology in Rice Cultivation in Kerala", "Small Coffee Growers of Sulthan Bathery, Wayanad", "State/Union Territory-Wise Number of Branches of Scheduled Commercial Banks and Average Population Per Bank Branch", "Now, you can bank on every village in Kerala", "On May Day, Kerala becomes Nokkukooli-free", "Regional poverty estimates for India, 1999–2000", "Technopark aims to be among top 5 IT investment locations", "God's own country to house largest IT park", "Infopark's IT exports climb 53% in FY14", "Kerala Budget: Infrastructure projects get a major fillip", "Modi to address heads of civic bodies on urban revamp", "Gross Domestic Product of Kerala and India From 2004–05 to 2012–13", "State to switch fully to organic farming by 2016: Mohanan", "CM: Will Get Total Organic Farming State Tag by 2016", "Coastal, Hill Highways to become a reality", "District of Palakkad – the granary of Kerala, Silent Valley National Park, Nelliyampathy", "Kerala State transport project second phase to be launched next month", "Institutional Strengthening Action Plan (ISAP)", "Kerala parties finally toe NHAI line of 45-m wide highways", "State's troubled highways a shocking revelation for Centre", "KeralaRTC Official Website - keralartc.com", "Thiruvananthapuram Central to be made a world-class station", "Metro rail: DMRC demands prompt handing over of land, funds", "DMRC sets early deadline for Kochi Metro rail project", "Alstom's new Metropolis train set for Kochi Metro", "Alstom's Metropolis for Kochi – design unveiled for the first time", "Metro train to ply every 5 minutes, carry 1,000 persons", "India's first CBTC metro system to be ready in March", "Kochi Metro zooms past Chennai, Nagpur to emerge best", "Aviation school proposal evokes mixed response", "Kannur flew, way before its first airport - Times of India", "Silver jubilee does not bring cheer to Karipur airport users", "How is the world's first solar-powered airport faring? [137][138] A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history; it also created a natural harbour for spice transport. [71] The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces;[72] contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. [240] Lulu International Shopping Mall at Kochi is the largest Shopping Mall in India. Old Age Homes In Kottayam, Kerala Abhaya Haven, Keezhakunnu, P.O, Kottayam, 686 002. [265][266] The state government promotes these activities via educational campaigns and the development of new cattle breeds such as the Sunandini. [467], Onam is a harvest festival celebrated by the people of Kerala and is reminiscent of the state's agrarian past. [227] A mining sector of 0.3% of GSDP involves extraction of ilmenite, kaolin, bauxite, silica, quartz, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite. During the early part of the Kulasekara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvalla was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century, making the region a part of the Kulasekara empire. Christian missionaries also influenced Malayali women in that they started schools for girls from poor families. [75] The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE. It campaigns for increased awareness of LGBT people and sensitisation concerning healthcare services, workplace policies and educational curriculum. Keralam may stem from an imperfect Malyalam portmanteau fusing kera ("coconut tree") and alam ("land" or "location") Continue Reading. [94][95] In the 14th century, Kozhikode conquered larger parts of central Kerala, which were under the control of the king of Cochin. "Jews in India." [383] According to 2011 Census of India figures, 54.73% of Kerala's residents were Hindus, 26.56% are Muslims, 18.38% are Christians, and the remaining 0.32% follow another religion or have no religious affiliation. [96] Ma Huan (1403 AD), the Chinese sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He)[97] states the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. Although, I always had a special affinity towards traditional naming conventions I wasn’t particularly sure if the name ‘Yakob’ may be perceived as more Muslim than a Christian name and create differences in opinion etc. Hebrew, Gr. Despite the lack of an act or law governing the procedure surrounding the subject of naming and renaming, the Kerala Gazette has laid clear rules. Chithra Thirunnal decided to set up a public road transportation system in 1937. KERALA BOARD OF PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS. [225][226] The KSIDC has promoted more than 650 medium and large manufacturing firms in Kerala, creating employment for 72,500 people. [420] Certain Hindu communities such as the Samantan Kshatriyas, Ambalavasis, Nairs, Thiyyas and some Muslims around North Malabar used to follow a traditional matrilineal system known as marumakkathayam,[421][422] although this practice ended in the years after Indian independence. kerala baby names, hindu baby names, christian names, muslim names [244] Kerala's 10% rise in GDP is 3% more than the national GDP. [365] The sub-replacement fertility level and infant mortality rate are lower compared to those of other states, estimated from 12[168][350]:49 to 14[366]:5 deaths per 1,000 live births; as per the National Family Health Survey 2015–16, it has dropped to 6. [283] New projects for hill and coastal highways were recently announced under KIIFB. [56]:110 Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala's terrain. [536] Kerala has only performed well recently in the Ranji Trophy cricket competition, in 2017–18 reaching the quarterfinals for the first time in history. [541][542][543] The Kerala state football team has won the Santhosh Trophy six times; in 1973, 1992, 1993, 2001, 2004, and 2018. [28] The Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. State Of Origin. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. [141][142] The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad; hence also known Palghat, where the Palakkad Gap breaks. [87] A second Chera Kingdom (c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram (present-day Kodungallur), was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. [302] The Nilambur–Shoranur line is one of the shortest broad gauge railway lines in India. [185] The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation is the largest corporation in Kerala while Kochi metropolitan area named Kochi UA is the largest urban agglomeration. Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English and international channels via cable television. Spanish It is to be noted that the origin mentioned here is not the immediate origin from where the malayalam name originated, but the root of the name. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. [145] Anamudi in the Idukki district is the highest peak in south India, is at an elevation of 2,695 m (8,842 ft). [380] Kerala has the greatest consumption of alcohol in India. "Mappila Muslim Culture" State University of New York Press, Albany (2015); p. xi. According to a TRAI report, as of June 2018 the total number of wireless phone subscribers in Kerala is about 43.1 million and the wireline subscriber base is at 1.9 million, accounting for the telephone density of 124.15. The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit-out others like them". Hw. Mappilas are but one among the many communities that forms the Muslim population of Kerala. Germanian, Sp. [269], There is a preference for organic products and home farming compared to synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. [316] One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses. [292] As of 2013[update], Kerala had the highest road accident rate in the country, with most fatal accidents taking place along the state's national highways.[293]. In the forests, sonokeling, Dalbergia latifolia, anjili, mullumurikku, Erythrina, and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. [385] Kerala has the largest population of Christians in India. [286] The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways in Kerala. [450][451], The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture. [516] Popular snacks include banana chips, yam crisps, tapioca chips, Achappam, Unni appam and kuzhalappam. Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. [569] Munnar is 4,500 feet above sea level and is known for tea plantations, and a variety of flora and fauna. Greek, Lt. Latin, Rm. [300][301] Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala, had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. [445][446] Kerala is the first Indian state to have ICT-enabled education with hi-tech classrooms in all public schools. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj. [287][288] Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast. [8] It was 0.790 in 2007–08[337] and it had a consumption-based HDI of 0.920, which is better than that of many developed countries. A Malayalam version of Google News was launched in September 2008. Kerala's culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, have made the state one of the most popular tourist destinations in India. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. [149] The Kuttanad region, also known as The Rice Bowl of Kerala, has the lowest altitude in India. The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire. ... an institution, whether called an orphanage, a home for neglected women or children, a widow's home, or by any other name, maintained or intended to be maintained for the reception, care, protection and welfare of women or … [107] They lost to Dutch at Quilon after 1661 and later, the Portuguese left south-western coast. In the state, despite the social progress, gender still influences social mobility. Germanian, Sp. Hi, Could anyone tell equivalent name for Thankamma. [356] In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage,[357] complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported. In the 2013–14 fiscal period, the contribution has been estimated at a high of 7.75%. [94][95], At the peak of their reign, the Zamorins of Kozhikode ruled over a region from Kollam (Quilon) in the south to Panthalayini Kollam (Koyilandy) in the north. [297] The railway network in the state is controlled by two out of six divisions of the Southern Railway; Thiruvananthapuram Railway division and Palakkad Railway Division. [123] The Malabar Special Police was formed by the colonial government in 1884 headquartered at Malappuram. Chitra, M.G. [160] The "Arabian Sea Branch" of the Southwest monsoon first hits the Western Ghats,[161] making Kerala the first state in India to receive rain from the Southwest monsoon. [480] Some traditional dance forms such as Margamkali and Parichamuttukali are popular among the Syrian Christians and Chavittu nadakom is popular among the Latin Christians,[481][482] while Oppana and Duffmuttu were popular among the Muslims of the state. Inclusion of name of Sri N P Vinodkumar, L.D Clerk in the Final Seniority List of L.D clerk for the period from 1-04-1990 to 31-12-2005 nclusion of name of Smt. [490] Since the 1980s, actors Mohanlal and Mammootty have dominated the movie industry; Mohanlal has won five National Film Awards (four for acting), while Mammootty has three National Film Awards for acting. The child marriages are particularly higher among the Muslim community. [119][120][121] The company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795. He also dons the role of an amateur naturalist, writer, web designer, photographer, and publisher—based on demand. [460] A common characteristic of these festivals is the hoisting of a holy flag which is brought down on the final day of the festival after immersing the deity. Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Zamorin of Kozhikode in the north, Venad in the south, Kochi in the middle, and Kannur in the far north. [168]:65, Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. In other states, national highways are grade separated, 60 metres (200 feet) wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8-lane access-controlled expressways. This mentions a pepper emporium called Male, which clearly gave its name to Malabar ('the country of Male'). A+ A A-Rationcard Details. [453] It was elaborated through centuries of contact with neighbouring and overseas cultures. There is a significant Tamil population in Palakkad and Idukki districts. Like, in our genealogy database of 2200+ (current figures), there are 9 of which I could not identify the gender by name. Susan is the English equivalent of Achamma. Kerala has focused more attention towards growth of Information Technology sector with formation of Technopark, Thiruvananthapuram which is one of the largest IT employer in Kerala. The first element of the name, however, is attested already in the Topography written by Cosmas Indicopleustes. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Zamorin and the King of Kochi allied with Kochi. They were also the runners-up eight times.[544]. Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state. is Kurien derived from Curran, an Irish name ? [citation needed] As a result, women in Kerala have had a much higher standing and influence in the society. The mythological legends regarding the origin of Kerala are Hindu in nature. [303], Kochi Metro is the metro rail system in the city of Kochi. It is the only metro rail system in Kerala. [34][35] Al-Biruni (973–1048 CE) must have been the first writer to call this country Malabar. As per the 2006–2007 census by SIDBI, there are 1,468,104 micro, small and medium enterprises in Kerala employing 3,031,272 people. The Grand Kerala Shopping Festival (GKSF) was started in 2007, covering more than 3000 outlets across the nine cities of Kerala with huge tax discounts, VAT refunds and huge array of prizes. Kerala is one of the major footballing states in India along with West Bengal and Goa and has produced national players like I. M. Vijayan, C. V. Pappachan, V. P. Sathyan, Jo Paul Ancheri, Pappachen Pradeep, C.K. [454] However, the geographical insularity of Kerala from the rest of the country has resulted in the development of a distinctive lifestyle, art, architecture, language, literature and social institutions. [33] The Arab writers had called this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and Munibar. Armenian, Ir. Daily scheduled service has increased from 1,200,000 kilometres (750,000 mi) to 1,422,546 kilometres (883,929 mi),[294] using 6,241 buses on 6,389 routes. [36] According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (hill) and the Persian/Arabic word Barr (country/continent). a Name isn't just for a birthday - it's for life! The KITE Kerala is a state owned special purpose company under education department of the Government of Kerala. [560] In 1986 the government of Kerala declared tourism an important industry and it was the first state in India to do so. [548] The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala reached ₹145.87 billion (US$2.0 billion) in 2020-2021. Antherjanam, Lalithambika. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea[14] to the west. Kerala produced several saints and movements. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.[15]. Abraham. [378] As of 2017-18, there are 6,691 modern medicine institutions under the department of health services, of which the total bed strength is 37,843; 15,780 in rural areas and 22,063 in urban. The Blasters are one of the most widely supported clubs in the country as well as the fifth most followed football club from Asia in the social media. [312] Trivandrum International Airport, managed by the Airport Authority of India, is among the oldest existing airports in South India. [528] Other dailies include Deccan Chronicle, The Times of India, DNA, The Economic Times, and The Financial Express. Encyclopædia Britannica. Malayalam. Yet to identify the origin of names like Dummini, Outha, Kuriakose (Cyril or Cyriac?) Historians do not rule out the possibility of Islam being introduced to Kerala as early as the seventh century CE. [56]:110 41 of Kerala's west-flowing rivers,[140] and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region.