1,2 *, Rachelle P. Tsachor. Graph. Comput. Additional motor elements that predicted feeling happy were enlarging the shape of the body in the horizontal (spread) and vertical (rise) direction as well as upward movements in space. Your emotions can be channeled creatively through your body’s own creative, natural expression. doi: 10.1177/0956797610383437, Carr, L., Iacoboni, M., Dubeau, M. C., Mazziotta, J. C., and Lenzi, G. L. (2003). Nonverbal Behav. Wallbott, H. G. (1998). The findings of the negative predictors are also important for personalization of emotion-regulation intervention. J. Pers. To this end, we asked people familiar with LMA to read and move motifs that included different combinations of motor elements and to rate what emotion was evoked in them while moving each motif, and the intensity of the evoked emotion. Feeling of happiness was predicted by jumping and rhythmic movements, which are a fundamental part of many folk dances all over the world. Effort-Shape and kinematic assessment of bodily expression of emotion during gait. This upside down move is an especially effective activity for regaining self-control when extremely angry, hurt, or upset. As can be seen in Table 2, each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements, and each motor element was a significant predictor for only one emotion. When you’re bypassing what’s inside you, you’re consistently expending energy to hold it back. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements, and each motor element was a significant predictor for only one emotion: none of these motor elements significantly predicted more than one emotion. Self-attribution of emotion: the effects of expressive behavior on the quality of emotional experience. In addition, the effects of some of these motor elements could be activated by one getting involved and becoming active in other movement disciplines that incorporate these motor elements. When you move as an open embrace of all the parts of yourself; your emotions, your deepest desires, your needs, and you attempt to live in alignment with these aspects of yourself, there will be movement and your life will change! A., and Duke, M. P. (2003). These elements characterize motor behaviors that, based on evolutionary theories, are associated with the specific emotions. Similar to the way a musical score describes how to play a sequence of notes over time, and may include both the notes to be played and the expressive quality intended by the composer, a motif may include the Body parts doing the movement and their actions, the change in the mover's Shape, the qualitative dynamics of the muscular contraction or Effort, and the advancement of the movement through Space. doi: 10.2307/1478254. Lastly, previous reading and moving of motifs might have influenced successive reading. Motor elements that were significant negative predictors for each emotion. Neurosci. Cognition 82, B51–B61. However, when it comes to whole body expressions, different people, or even the same person on different occasions and under different circumstances, may express the same emotion in a variety of movements and actions, using a variety of body parts. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Cleveland State University, United States. referring to the ability to maintain an arousal level that is appropriate for any given situation Neural mechanisms of empathy in humans: a relay from neural systems for imitation to limbic areas. The result of this multiplication was used as a measure for the strength of the association between each motif and its specific associated emotion. Start each movement practice with an emotional ‘check in.’ Close your eyes and observe your emotional state. Although the linkage between mirror neuron activity and the behavior of larger neuronal networks is unknown, it was suggested that mirror neurons have a role in embodied simulation. Soc. Further implications for the data presented in this descriptive table will be discussed in the Discussion section. Participants could repeat the same movement again and again or could move a variety of movements one after another but all having the same motor elements. As a preliminary exploration, to probe how many elements and which combinations of elements need appear in a movement sequence in order for that movement sequence to enhance an emotion, we created a descriptive table showing each motif in the study, with the motor elements appearing in that motif and the quantified score of their appearance (as described in the Material and Methods section). Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements. Expression of emotion in the kinematics of locomotion. Our physical bodies store emotions and this stored energy can create physical pain in the body. doi: 10.1068/p5096, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Atkinson, A. P., Tunstall, M. L., and Dittrich, W. H. (2007). In a recent study in neuropsychology, it was observed how the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. RT contributed to the design of the study, to data acquisition and to results interpretation. Allow the emotions you are feeling to be recognized as energy that wants to flow through your body; as E MOTION: energy in motion. 29, 203–217. New York, NY: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. 37, 91–105. Emotions can be thought of as the body’s energetic release valve. A well-guided movement practice can take you from depression to feeling great in just a few moments. Emotions are embodied. We regulate emotions in many ways, some healthy and some unhealthy. Needless to say, our hearts are heavy from having to make this decision. Additional application to the knowledge of the associations between certain emotions and specific motor elements is teaching actors, politicians or public speakers how to convey through their body language the emotional message they want to communicate. doi: 10.1007/BF00990296, Dott, L. P. (1995). Two Phrasing elements—one Phrasing-intensity: increasing; and one Phrasing-rhythmicity: reinitiating. Some of the motifs that were created for this study were very basic and included only one motor element or quality of movement (e.g., light effort; condensing the body; or retreating in space), some included a combination of motor qualities (e.g., retreating in space while condensing the body at the same time), and some more complex motifs included a short sequence of movements, taken from the most recognized clips, and the description of the qualitative aspects of their performance. Thus, we recruited additional 53 participants (52 females, 1 male, 1 unidentified; 35 US residents, 17 non-US residents, 1 unidentified; age range 25–86 years old) via an on-line survey, disseminated through list-serves and websites for movement professionals. The four components of Effort are: (1) activation of Effort-Weight, or the amount of force or pressure exerted by the body, characterized as Strong, Light, or lack of weight activation, giving in to the pull of gravity i.e., Passive/Heavy; (2) Effort-Space, describing the focus or attitude toward a chosen pathway, i.e., is the movement Direct or Indirect; (3) Effort-Time, or the degree of urgency or acceleration/deceleration involved in a movement, i.e., is the movement Sudden or Sustained; and (4) Effort-Flow, the element of control or the degree to which a movement is Bound, i.e., controlled by muscle contraction, vs. Free, i.e., being released/liberated. Eight Shape elements—two Shape-change: expand and condense; two Shape-vertical: rise and sink; two Shape-horizontal: spread and enclose; and two Shape-sagittal: advance and retreat. Emotions are actually embedded in our physical body and are a major part of what motivates us to get moving. The use of body movements and gestures as cues to emotions in younger and older adults. Afterwards, it felt like bricks had been lifted off my shoulders. Three Effort elements: Strong (B = 1.139, Z = 10.43, p < 0.0001), Sudden (B = 0.812, Z = 4.93, p < 0.0001), and Direct (B = 0.751, Z = 4.38, p < 0.0001), and one Shape element: Advance (B = 0.761, Z = 3.74, p = 0.0002). To illustrate this point Figure 1 shows pictures of two different people doing two different movements, based on the same instruction—to make a movement that includes the motor elements: Passive weight (effort), Sinking (shape), Head down (body part and Space), and Arm(s) to upper body (body action). “A review of computable expressive descriptors of human motion,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Movement and Computing (MOCOŠ15) (New York, NY), 21–28. Neural decoding of expressive human movement from scalp electroencephalography (EEG). (2010). The specific motor elements that were found to evoke or enhance each emotion are not surprising, and match what we already know intuitively. For example: in Alexander Technique people learn to effortlessly elongate (rise with light weight) their body, and in yoga there is constant emphasis on opening the chest (spreading). The association between sadness and this type of movements is in accordance with evolutionary theories of sadness, which postulate that we are sad when we encounter adversities, which require us to save our energy and avoid confrontations with stronger animals, until we can regroup and regain our strength back (Hagen, 2011). Quite the opposite. Dance therapists could help such patients to experience these emotions by directing them how to move, using our findings. Based on statistical analysis of this data we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predict the feeling of that emotion. In previous studies that have elicited sadness through posture, subjects were asked, among other motor behaviors to drop their head down, to droop their shoulders and let their rib cage fall (sinking) and to let the rest of their body go limp (passive weight) (Duclos et al., 1989; Flack et al., 1999; Duclos and Laird, 2001). In order to release it, sadness first must be detected in the system. doi: 10.1016/j.gmod.2004.08.002, Keywords: emotion regulation, Laban Movement Analysis, motor characteristic, affect, movement, emotion, embodiment, bodily expression, Citation: Shafir T, Tsachor RP and Welch KB (2016) Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions. doi: 10.1007/s00779-009-0263-2, Barliya, A., Omlor, L., Giese, M. A., Berthoz, A., and Flash, T. (2013). All participants consented to take part in the study, which was approved by the University of Michigan Institutional Review Board. Participants were given as much time as they needed to read each motif, repeatedly move it, and answer the questions concerning the emotion felt in response to the movement and its intensity. Hands flat on floor under shoulders. In other words, the higher the result of this “%correct*intensity_felt” multiplication, the higher the chance that people who move the motif will strongly feel the associated emotion. She added that students with autism need to be given different strategies for problem-solving that they are … doi: 10.1016/0197-4556(95)00033-2, Duclos, S. E., and Laird, J. D. (2001). Assuming that each participant would complete only a few motifs and to ensure enough readings of each motif, we randomized the order of motifs in the survey, so that each participant got different motifs in the beginning of the survey, and therefore read and moved different motifs. This finding indicates a very strong and unique association between rhythmicity and happiness. doi: 10.1007/BF00992249, Roether, C. L., Omlor, L., Christensen, A., and Giese, M. A. 34, 223–248. Similar unique and strong association was found between passive/heavy weight and sadness, as this motor element positively predicted sadness and negatively predicted all other emotions. Finally, Shape refers to the way the body “sculpts” itself in space, i.e., it describes the changes in the relationship of the body parts to one another and to the surrounding environment that occur when a body moves (i.e., whether the body Encloses or Spreads, Rises or Sinks, Advances or Retreats). (2001). Similarly, by adding certain motor elements to movements, one can add emotion to a neutral movement and create bodily emotional expressions in robots, animations, avatars, or virtual reality characters to make them move and behave more human-like (Masuda and Kato, 2010). What’s inside this article: A look at different forms of emotional regulation, how to choose strategies that are effective for your child(ren), and a list of 120 emotional regulation ideas to inspire you to find effective techniques. Winters, A. Methods 158, 137–149. Come into a short Down Dog – hips up, feet and legs together. doi: 10.1207/s15327663jcp1404_10, Gross, M. M., Crane, E., and Fredrickson, B. In order for a movement to be light and free, one has to generate the minimal amount of force necessary for achieving the required limb displacement. (2005). Where are the outlets this feeling can be moved through in today’s movement practice? Let’s take sadness for example. For each motif, we multiplied the percent of subjects that “correctly” identified (felt) the emotion expressed in the motif by the average emotional intensity as was rated by those subjects who “correctly” felt the emotion. Moving with these motor elements causes our body to become bigger and larger, and produces a feeling of dominance and power (Carney et al., 2010). 4. Nonverbal Behav. Hugging oneself brings comfort, and so does touching one's face, which is one of the displacement activities that serve in human and non-human primates both as an indicator to stress and as an adaptive response that reduces stress (Troisi, 2002). 9, 1394–1398. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. Knowing these predictors will provide people a tool to help regulate their emotions through their motor behavior, by incorporating into their daily movements those motor elements that enhance happiness, and by avoiding or decreasing motor behaviors that include elements that enhance … U.S.A. 100, 5497–5502. Psychol. LMA also examines additional movement patterns, such as the phrasing of the movement, which means the way movement elements are sequenced or change over time, analogous to phrasing in music (for a more detailed and systematic description of LMA see Bartenieff and Lewis, 1980; Studd and Cox, 2013; Fernandes, 2015). 57, 100–108. (1999). Nonverbal Behav. I just try to let it come from my intuitive center. Can. Similarly, these motor qualities describe also the movements which have been found in previous studies to characterize fear expressions: Both Atkinson and De Meijer described the fear movements as involving moving backward in contracted or closed (condense) movements (De Meijer, 1989; Atkinson et al., 2004), and Dael described fear motor expressions as involving backward body lean (retreat) (Dael et al., 2012b). doi: 10.1037/a0025737, Darwin, C. R. (1872). Naturally, our bodies crave movement, but the right kind of movement! In conclusion, our study has identified sets of motor characteristics that predict the elicitation or enhancement of each of the emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness, when moving those characteristics. Expressing and interpreting emotional movements in social games with robots. We then ordered the motifs composed of motor elements that were extracted from movements expressing a certain emotion, based on this measure. Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions. Anger is known as an approach (advancing) emotion, and a punching movement, which is a frequent universal expression of anger, is characterized by a strong, sudden and direct effort. Go for a walk, dance, take a Primal Vinyasa class… move your body and your mood will will move too. If you have pain, MOVE. Evolutionary theories of depression: a critical review. How does facial feedback modulate emotional experience? If they don’t, they can tend to get mucky. Encourage your body to let go of the, Emotions can be thought of as the body’s energetic release valve. This variety of motor choices available for elicitation or enhancement of each specific emotion raises two questions: (1) When it comes to the use of movement for emotion regulation—how do we know which specific bodily movements are associated with each emotion? London: John Murray. In addition, its vocabulary is descriptive and easily understood, making it suitable to be directly applied in movement coaching, research and therapy, and it is internationally recognized in various fields of studies including both the sciences and the arts. The less you move, the less you feel. All analyses were run using SAS 9.2 for Windows. Motiv. Go for a walk, dance, take a. (2014b). doi: 10.1080/02699930126057, Duclos, S. E., Laird, J. D., Schneider, E., and Sexter, M. (1989). The last row of “sad” motifs (# 29.13, 29.11, and 29.21) are motifs constructed from motor elements that were extracted from the sad clips. De Meijer, M. (1989). One important application, as already suggested, is using this knowledge for emotion regulation. • Quiet your behavior—intense emotions lead to intense choices (often ones we regret). When I’m really ungrounded, overwhelmed or anxious, for example, my lower back pain flairs, signaling me to be aware of my emotional body. Thus, LMA is thorough, able to capture through its diverse motor elements all the movement assessments, dimensions and characteristics that were used in the previous studies described above. Mind 9, 188–205. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif) for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. In the first phase, motifs were created for each emotion: motifs of single motor elements potentially meaningful for the motor expression of that emotion and motifs of various combinations of those elements were both created. (2) How can we determine and personalize the most effective and efficient movements for each individual to carry out in order to enhance or decrease each emotion? The Moving Researcher: Laban/Bartnieff Movement Analysis in Performing Arts Education and Creative Arts Therapies. Int. This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Seven out of the nine “Effort” motor elements, six out of eight “Shape” motor elements, two out of five “Space” motor elements, three out of five “Body” elements, and one out of two Phrasing elements were found to be significant predictors. People often dance in order to elevate their mood (e.g., when going to dancing clubs), and these motor characteristics of the dance movements can explain the mechanism behind this cross-cultural effect. Traveling (walking, running, crawling), Changing support (sitting, lying down, getting onto hands or knees), etc. In the emotion process model, there are four stages in the cycle: 1: Situation – Internal or external event triggers an emotion. Have you ever gone for a run feeling anxious or overwhelmed only to return feeling inspired and optimistic? But if you recognize the high costs of not acknowledging and working through these feelings, you may become aware that unconsciously clinging to them isn’t likely to contribute to your wellbeing. Soc. But if you recognize the high costs of not acknowledging and working through these feelings, you may become aware that unconsciously clinging to them isn’t likely to contribute to your wellbeing. This distinctive one-to-one matching between each emotion and certain motor characteristics, i.e., certain type of proprioceptive feedback, supports the idea that the four basic emotions investigated in this study are discrete and biologically based. The six experts decided which are the potentially meaningful elements based on two criteria: First, they identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in) all clips expressing the same emotion. Maybe our mind and body wouldn’t resist so much during our ‘workout.’. Moving the elements head drop, bringing hands to the head and sinking (motif 29.11) could yield any of the two postures shown in Figure 1. For kids, dysregulation makes life challenging, friendships difficult, and most significantly, it can make learning impossible.” To curb that, we need to teach emotion regulation so kids can realize that they’re in control of their feelings and subsequent actions. 8:330. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00330, Izard, C. E. (1993). doi: 10.1080/17470919.2014.890668, Huis In 't Veld, E. M. J., van Boxtel, G. J. M., and de Gelder, B. Participants could repeat the same movement again and again or could move a variety of movements one after another but all having the same motor elements. Because many of the recent papers that have used Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) concentrated on or emphasized predominantly the analysis of the Effort category (Zhao and Badler, 2005; Barakova and Lourens, 2010; Lourens et al., 2010; Crane and Gross, 2013; Zacharatos et al., 2013; Cruz-Garza et al., 2014), it is important to note that the predictors we found are from all categories of LMA: Body, Effort, Space and Shape. The first row of “angry” motifs (# 13.12, 202.002, and 13.18) are motifs constructed from motor elements that were taken from angry clips. There is no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ way to move. The use of Laban movement analysis in the study of personality, emotional state and movement style: an exploratory investigation of the veridicality of “body language”. Motor elements that predict each emotion. The way we hold our bodies effects the way we feel. Body Movement: Coping with the Environment. J. Hum. In another study, happiness was not measured directly, but dancing a dance (rhythmic movements) that incorporated small jumps decreased depression and increased vitality (Koch et al., 2007). Fear was significantly predicted by five elements: one Effort element: Bind (B = 0.769, Z = 4.02, p < 0.0001), three Shape elements: Retreat (B = 0.851, Z = 8.40, p < 0.0001), Condense (B = 0.778, Z = 4.71, p < 0.0001), and Enclose (B = 0.667, Z = 3.67, p = 0.0002), and one Space element: Back (B = 0.736, Z = 4.71, p < 0.0001). “Movement-based strategies for emotion regulation,” in Handbook on Emotion Regulation: Processes, Cognitive Effects and Social Consequences, ed M. L. Bryant (New York, NY: Nova publishers), 231–249. Both Duclos and Flack asked their subjects to lean backward (retreat) and dip the shoulders (condense) in order to create the posture that elicited fear (Duclos et al., 1989; Flack et al., 1999). Identify the location in your body where the most prominent feelings reside. Feeling fear was also predicted by bound flow, a motor quality that is achieved by intense muscle activation which is also necessary for freezing—another typical response to a dangerous situation in the animal kingdom. The identification of motor elements characterizing the expression of each emotion: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness were done in two phases. doi: 10.1016/j.robot.2010.08.006, Masuda, M., and Kato, S. (2010). While no study yet has tried to characterize movements whose motor execution enhances each emotion, there have been various attempts to characterize movements associated with the bodily expression of each emotion and/or its perception from body movements and posture. The potential of movement analysis as a research tool: a preliminary analysis. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Loves movement. Table 4 displays the four motifs for each emotion that got the highest result for this “%correct*intensity_felt” measure. Movement practice can take you from depression to feeling great in just 7 minutes day. In addition, although happiness is generally a goal, some people may need flow... Motifs that were found as predicted happiness characterize also some of your own emotions arise I: muscle activations the. On my yoga mat when I feel angry or anxious Wellness center be., Bruderlin, A., and Cruz, R., Studd, K. 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