However recently, Sayyad-Amin and colleagues analyzed the effect of salinity on photosynthetic pigment attributes in both grain and sweet-forage sorghum. Upon sensing the light signal, it represses the expression of TB1 (Teosinte Branched 1) gene and DRM1 (dormancy-associated gene) thereby, resulting in axillary bud outgrowth [177, 189]. Extensive usage of these crops as biofuel feedstock will not only threaten food security but would also compete with other food crops for irrigation and arable land resources. Sorghum molecular breeding. 2006;5(10):736–44. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a C4 Graminaceous crop which has sugar-rich stalks and which is a water-use efficient crop has a very good potential as an alternative feed stock for ethanol production. Affymetrix designed first commercially available sorghum GeneChip®, SorghWTa520972F ( that carries 1,026,373 probes for 149,182 exons from 27,577 genes. Considering this, many studies have been carried out to generate genetic and genomic resources for sweet sorghum. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Renewable sources of energy can help mitigate the negative effects associated with the use of fossil fuels and represent a growing share of the energy portfolio. Although the most commonly used promoters are CaMV35S (Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S), maize adh1 (alcohol dehydrogenase1), maize ubi1 (Ubiquitin 1), and actin 1, ubi1 promoter has been reported to drive the highest level of expression [159]., DOI: Am J Bot. 2012;191(2):259–68. Due to variation in photoperiod sensitivity and temperature, the time of maturity varies in different varieties and hybrids and usually range from 90 to 150 days (Fig. The whole genome sequencing of homozygous genotype BTx623 (inbred line) of grain sorghum was completed through Sanger shotgun sequencing with 8.5-fold coverage [104]. Enhanced plant regeneration in grain and sweet sorghum by asparagine, proline and cefotaxime. “Sweet Sorghum in some ways is similar to corn,” says Don Slack, Ph.D., professor in the Department of Biosystems Engineering.. “But it’s a much more drought tolerant, heat tolerant plant.” Through the research in Slack’s lab, he and his graduate students are finding better ways to grow the plants and optimize their production … […] Read More. The plant will be operational by November 2008. This finding was corroborated by another study in which seven accessions of Sudanese sweet sorghum (“Ankolib”) were genotyped using RAPD and SSR markers [99]. Agribusiness. Cuevas HE, Prom LK, Erpelding JE. Several QTLs associated with flowering days and anthesis date have been identified [165, 187, 188]. 1, 2, and Nengsiza No. Li Z, Zhi-hong L, Gui-ying L, Kang-lai H, Tong-qing Y, Jie Z, Da-fang H. Introduction of Btcry1Ah gene into sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Sorghum bicolor has emerged as a promising target for sugar as well as lignocellulosic biofuel production. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a leading biofuel feedstock that is produced with minimum inputs and does well even in semi‐arid areas with soils of low fertility. A total of six Brix QTLs were detected on linkage groups SBI01b, SBI04b, SBI05, and SBI07. The sweet sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) has vast potential use as ethanol and syrup production in the Indian context. Nebraska: University of Nebraska-Lincoln; 2010. It contains about 62 million SNPs from 48 re-sequenced sorghum accessions that includes improved varieties, landraces, weedy accessions, and wild species collected from various parts of the world. Such regions can be used to engineer insect resistance in sorghum. Because, it has higher tolerance to salt and drought … Sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production. Adaptability and stability study of selected sweet sorghum genotypes for ethanol production under different environments using AMMI analysis and GGE biplots. This work was supported by Department of Biotechnology, India [Ramalingaswami fellowship Grant “BT/RLF/Re-entry/27/2012” to MKS and “BT/RLF/Re-entry/49/2012” to RS]. The use of selection marker genes and the promoters governing their expression is vital for developing successful transgenic plants [158]. Apart from high Brix content, these varieties are tolerant to many biotic stresses. Nakamura Y, Kudo T, Terashima S, Saito M, Nambara E, Yano K. CATchUP: a web database for spatiotemporally regulated genes. Kawahigashi H, Kasuga S, Okuizumi H, Hiradate S, Yonemaru JI. Taxonomy ID 4558. Murray SC, Rooney WL, Hamblin MT, Mitchell SE, Kresovich S. Sweet sorghum genetic diversity and association mapping for brix and height. Tonapi, Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel Industry, Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 10.1016/B978-0-08-101879-8.00016-4, (255-270), (2019). SM acknowledges UGC for providing fellowship during her research. Although, most of these studies indicate that the sugar yield in sweet sorghum is a quantitative trait and vary with the genotype, environment and genotype-by-environment effects [131, 132], detailed characterization of candidate genes using reverse genetic approaches coupled with genome-wide association studies will be needed to determine the heritability of the traits of interest. Elkonin LA, Lopushanskaya RF, Pakhomova NV. Li X, Su M, Li X, Cheng L, Qi D, Chen S, Liu G. Molecular characterization and expression patterns of sucrose transport-related genes in sweet sorghum under defoliation. Jan 08, 2021 (The Expresswire) -- "Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry." Sweet sorghum may grow up to twenty feet tall and produce significantly higher biomass yields compared to grain sorghum. Therefore, adaptation and tolerance towards abiotic and biotic stresses is critical for the survival of a plant under suboptimal conditions. However, significant progress has been made in optimizing the regeneration procedures and transformation systems for grain and sweet sorghum in the recent past [133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140]. Molecular genetic identification of some sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] 1 [86]. However, the transformation efficiency achieved was only ~0.01% per excised embryo. Many promising sweet sorghum varieties have been identified at ICRISAT among the naturally occurring genotypes through a specialized program for the identification of varieties for breeding purposes. Phytopathology. Other agronomic traits like short life cycle of about 4 months, ability to grow under adverse environmental conditions, fewer input requirements, low cost of cultivation, and C4 photosynthesis are especially helpful for its adoption as a biofuel feedstock. A high-density genetic map for sorghum using 2246 specific-locus amplified fragments (SLAF) markers has recently been reported that spans all 10 chromosomes with a total distance of 2158.1 cM [98]. This is about 3 … The response of sweet sorghum cultivars to salt stress and accumulation of Na+, Cl− and K+ ions in relation to salinity. Genetic control of carbon partitioning in grasses: roles of sucrose transporters and tie-dyed loci in phloem loading. Do PT, Zhang ZJ. Plant Physiol. RS and MKS conceptualized, participated in writing, and finalized the manuscript. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], a C4 Graminaceous … 2010;121(2):323–36. Most of these varieties are mainly adapted for rainy season and can be grown during summer, provided lifesaving irrigations are available. Inbred lines are important to ensure availability of genetically uniform individuals with heritable desired traits (like sugar content), which can be further used for the development of elite lines or hybrids. 2). Growth phases and stages during sorghum life cycle. Nucleic Acids Res 2016; 44:1–7. BMC Genom. Dw4 shows strong association with blooming habit, a morphological marker. 2002;47:311–22. Qazi HA, Paranjpe S, Bhargava S. Stem sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum—activity and expression of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters. Based upon the production characteristics and usage, these have been divided into four groups namely; grain, forage, energy, and sweet sorghum. Reddy BVS, Ramesh S, Reddy PS, Kumar AA, Sharma KK, Chetty SMK, Palaniswamy AR. Studies elucidating the mechanism behind combined stress responses mimicking real-life situation in the fields would be needed to optimize breeding programs and agronomic practices required under different climatic conditions. However, stage of maximum sugar accumulation varies in different varieties with some genotypes mainly accumulating sugars between dough stage and physiological maturity, whereas others accumulate sugars up to 15 days post-physiological maturity [60]. Energy Policy. Although this collection possesses majority of the germplasm adapted to temperate climate, it likely has a narrow genetic base as only six genotypes (MN960, MN1048, MN1054, MN1056, MN1060, and MN1500) from Africa have been used for developing many of these varieties [71]. 5.1. [127] elucidated a comparative expression profile of newly identified sucrose transporter gene family, SWEET between sweet sorghum (SIL-05) and grain sorghum (BTx623). Terms and Conditions, Mace ES, Jordan DR. The nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Gramineae). 2008;2008:1–7. 2011;12(514):1–21. Sweet sorghum thrives better under drier and warmer conditions than many other crops and is grown primarily for forage, silage, and syrup production. 2014;4(3):26–34. 6 2014;15(1):1–19. In: Publication of Agronomy Department, No. It has potential to solve two major issues. In: Jeon KW, editor. Zhang D, Guo H, Kim C, Lee TH, Li J, Robertson J, Wang X, Wang Z, Paterson AH. To identify the genomic regions linked to sugar content in sweet sorghum, Yun-long et al. New York: Elsevier Inc.; 2016. p. 221–57. Phylogenetic relationships of saccharinae and sorghinae. Article  SS-AGR-293. Amali P, Kingsley SJ, Ignacimuthu S. Enhanced plant regeneration involving somatic embryogenesis from shoot tip explants of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. 2004;306:2206–11. 2, Liaotian No. Although, ethanol can be produced from sweet sorghum grain (Figure 1) but it needs more process for converting it's starch to glucose that later will be converted to ethanol (Jacques et al., 1999). Shakoor and coworkers [115] used these arrays for expression analysis of four vegetative tissues including shoots, roots, leaves, and stems from six diverse genotypes of grain (R159), sweet (Fermont & Atlas), forage (PI152611), and bioenergy sorghum (PI455230 & AR2400). Mace ES, Tai S, Gilding EK, Li Y, Prentis PJ, Bian L, Campbell BC, Hu W, Innes DJ, Han X, et al. Johnson and colleagues [116] used Agilent 28K arrays to analyze changes in gene expression in response to individual or combined heat and drought stresses in grain sorghum, whereas 44K arrays of sorghum have been used to investigate genetic variation and expression diversity between grain (BTx623) and sweet sorghum (Keller) lines [117]. [118] used RNAseq to investigate the gene expression in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid stress in sorghum. They analyzed several traits that include carbon assimilation, photochemical quenching, efficiency of energy capture by open PSII reaction centers, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and effective quantum yields. Int J Agric Biol. Berlin: Springer; 2015. p. 83–91. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sweet sorghum. BioEnergy Res. Stevens G, Dunn D, Wrather A. Switchgrass and sweet sorghum fertilization for bioenergy feedstocks. Listed: Ahmad Dar, Rouf ; Ahmad Dar, Eajaz; Kaur, Ajit; Gupta Phutela, Urmila; Registered: Abstract. The explants retaining meristematic activity or spatially close to the meristematic state, for example., embryos, seedlings, and inflorescence have been reported to be more responsive. Sweet sorghum genetics, breeding and plantation studies in China. Sugar Tech. Characterization of improved sweet sorghum cultivars. 2012;63(15):5451–62. The most common renewable fuel today is ethanol. Agric Sci China. In: Smith CW, Frederiksen RA, editors. Bowers JE, Abbey C, Anderson S, Chang C, Draye X, Hoppe AH, Jessup R, Lemke C, Lennington J, Li Z, et al. Particle bombardment as well as Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been used to optimize the transformation of sorghum [137, 144, 149,150,151]. 2017;19(3):396–405. Olukoya IA, Bellmer D, Whiteley JR, Aichele CP. Sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop has many attractive features that make it an excellent source of renewable energy. Major pests of sorghum are the lepidopteran stem borer (Chilo partellus) and the dipterans, such as midge (Stenodiplosis sorghicola), and shoot fly (Atherigona soccata). Kumar CG, Fatima A, Rao PS, Reddy BVS, Rathore A, Rao RN, Khalid S, Kumar AA, Kamal A. Google Scholar. 2014;35(4):733–9. Further, addition of antioxidants like PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) [139], coconut water [146], activated charcoal [147], l-proline, and l-asparagine [148] have been used to reduce the concentration of toxic phenolics. Zheng et al. Also, sweet sorghum varieties are taller, have larger leaf canopy surface area, and are equipped with a better light interception and high radiation use efficiency compared to grain and energy sorghums [25]. Sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems under contrasting photoperiods and grains are not going to last forever [ 2,3,4.!, large-scale planting on marginal lands have attracted attention of researchers [ 7 ] impact crop... 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