Marathi Dina/Marathi Diwasa) is celebrated on 27 February every year across the Indian states of Maharashtra and Goa. Native Marathi speakers form 6.86% of India's population. Maharashtri Prakrit, the ancestor of modern Marathi, is a particularly interesting case. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 05:28. [citation needed] Such words are for example nantar (from nantara or after), purṇa (purṇa or complete, full, or full measure of something), ola (ola or damp), karaṇ (karaṇa or cause), puṣkaḷ (puṣkala or much, many), satat (satata or always), vichitra (vichitra or strange), svatah (svatah or himself/herself), prayatna (prayatna or effort, attempt), bhīti (from bhīti, or fear) and bhāṇḍa (bhāṇḍa or vessel for cooking or storing food). Also Vijay Tendulkar's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra. Carey, William. The word “Maharashtra” was derived from Sanskrit words Maha (“great”) and Rashtra (“nation/dominion”) formally known as “Great Nation”. [12] For instance, the people from western India, that emigrated to Mauritius in the early 19th century also speak Marathi. In the north-western part of the state, people speak Ahirani dialect. Modern Asian Studies, 10(3), pp.321-348. The Marathi language, which evolved from Maharashtri Prakrit, has been the common language from the 9th century. [63][64][65][66], In recent decades there has been a trend among Marathi speaking parents of all social classes in major urban areas of sending their children to English medium schools. [48] The first Marathi newspaper called Durpan was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in 1832. However, the Marathi language from the era is heavily persianised in its vocabulary. In Goa, though Konkani is the sole official language, Marathi also is permitted to be used for all official purposes. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is the nation's third largest state by area and is also the world's second-most populous sub-national entity.It has over 110 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai, has a population of approximately 18 million. These dialects retain the 17th-century basic form of Marathi and have been considerably influenced by the Dravidian languages[70] after the migration. [24], Marathi Day is celebrated on 27 February, the birthday of the poet Kusumagraj (Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar). You will also find a number of people speaking Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu and a medley of South Indian languages. The IPA signs for these are [æ] and [ɒ], respectively. Status. (1) This Act may be called the Maharashtra Official Languages Act, 1964. Subsequent Maratha rulers extended the empire northwards to Attock, eastwards to Odisha, and southwards to Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu. There are two more vowels in Marathi to denote the pronunciations of English words such as of a in act and a in all. Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh[76][77][78][79] version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. There are a lot of Bakharis written in Marathi and Modi script from this period. The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi grammar was printed in 1805 by William Carey. The state shares borders with Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa and the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Following is the traditional Dresses of Maharashtra that the men wear: Maharashtrian Attire For Men Dhoti Thanjavur Marathi, Namadeva Shimpi Marathi, Arey Marathi and Bhavsar Marathi are some of the dialects of Marathi spoken by many descendants of Maharashtrians who migrated to Southern India. Marathi is one of several languages that further descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. Marathi gained prominence with the rise of the Maratha Empire beginning with the reign of Shivaji (1630–1680). महाराष्ट्र की जानकारी एक नजर में – Maharashtra Information, Facts & History in Hindi. Even today a large number of printed publications such as books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts. These inscriptions suggest that Marathi was a standard written language by the 12th century. [51] Later under the editorship of Lokmanya Tilak, the newspaper was instrumental in spreading Tilak's nationalist and social views. Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite. Moreover, Marathi preserves certain Sanskrit patterns of pronunciation, as in the words purṇa and rāma compared to purṇ and rām in Hindi. Powers of ten are denoted by separate specific words as depicted in below table. For example, 29 is एकुणतीस/एकोणतीस (एक-उणे-तीस) (thirty minus one). Main languages are Marathi, Hindi and English. Two digit numbers used before Hazara, etc. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. The most important hagiographies of Varkari Bhakti saints were written by Mahipati in the 18th Century. In 1956, the then Bombay state was reorganized which brought most Marathi and Gujarati speaking areas under one state. Language Marathi is the main language spoken by most of the inhabitants of Maharashtra. Languages: Marathi, Hindi, English Maharashtra presents a complex range of physical diversity. But different regions have their own dialects. His poetry contained his inspirations. Main languages are Marathi, Hindi and English. [91], Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary, and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages,[91] and foreign languages such as Persian,[36] Arabic, English and also from Romance languages like French, Spanish, Portuguese and other European languages.[91]. [44][45][46][47], The first Marathi translation of the New Testament was published in 1811 by the Serampore press of William Carey. The Land of the Marathas, Maharashtra is the 2nd most populated and the 3rd largest state in India. [32] He is known for the Viveka-Siddhi and Parammrita which are metaphysical, pantheistic works connected with orthodox Vedantism. Cities in Maharashtra are Metropolitan and are a blend of many cultures and use English as their official language. Economic Facts about Maharashtra. Marathi (English: /məˈrɑːti/;[7] मराठी, Marāṭhī, Marathi: [məˈɾaʈʰi] (listen)) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. To simplify administration and revenue collection, the sultans promoted use of Marathi in official documents. [37] Adilshahi of Bijapur also used Marathi for administration and record keeping.[38]. Studies and Research in Marathi", "Clamour grows for Marathi to be given classical language status", "The Adil Shahi Kingdom (1510 CE to 1686 CE)", "Chap 13: Dalit Literature in Marathi by Veena Deo", Issues of Language and Representation: Babu Rao Bagul, "City hails Pantawane as 'father of Dalit literature, "How three generations of Dalit women writers saw their identities and struggle? The official language of Mumbai is Marathi and it is the most used language of the State of Maharashtra as well. Spoken Marathi language changes with every change of Mahimbhatta's second important literary work is the Shri Govindaprabhucharitra or Rudhipurcharitra, a biography of Shri Chakradhar Swami's guru, Shri Govind Prabhu. New literary forms were successfully experimented with during the period and classical styles were revived, especially the Mahakavya and Prabandha forms. Maharashtrian cuisine is a zesty and spicy one, which makes abundant use of aromatic and flavourful ingredients like peanuts, sesame seeds and chillies. [92] He opined that foreign words polluted the Marathi language and also made original Marathi words with the same meanings obsolete. Marathi borrows a lot of its vocabulary from Sanskrit. The Marathi language television industry was started in India in 1984. Nagpur serves as second capital as well as winter capital of the state. With 83 million speakers as 2011, Marathi ranks 10th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. It was during the 20th century, that the people belonging to the peasant community of the Indo-Aryan Kshatriya Marathi class who were described … [26], The earliest example of Maharashtri as a separate language dates to approximately 3rd century BCE: a stone inscription found in a cave at Naneghat, Junnar in Pune district had been written in Maharashtri using Brahmi script. A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two. Marathi employs agglutinative, inflectional and analytical forms. Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. There are number of dialects spoken in Maharashtra. Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved. This was probably written in 1288. य र ल व Have a look at various languages spoken in From the 13th century until the beginning of British rule in 19th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script for administrative purposes but in Devanagari for literature. These excursions by the Marathas helped to spread Marathi over broader geographical regions. Indic scholars distinguish 42 dialects of spoken Marathi. There are special names for ​3⁄2 (diiḍ), ​5⁄2 (aḍich), and ​7⁄2 (aut). This practice provides Marathi with a large corpus of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed. Baburao Bagul (1930–2008) was a pioneer of Dalit writings in Marathi. The 16th century saint-poet Eknath (1528–1599) is well known for composing the Eknāthī Bhāgavat, a commentary on Bhagavat Purana and the devotional songs called Bharud. The primary influence of Prakrit, Maharashtri, Apabhraṃśa and Sanskrit is understandable. Its language is Marathi. क्ष ज्ञ. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below: In writing, Marathi has a few digraphs that are rarely seen in the world's languages, including those denoting the so-called "nasal aspirates" (ṇh (ण्ह), nh (न्ह), and mh (म्ह)) and liquid aspirates (rh, ṟh, lh (ल्ह), and vh व्ह). Further re-organization of the Bombay state on 1 May 1960, created the Marathi speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati speaking Gujarat state respectively. Most of the forts in Maharashtra were built by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his Maratha Empire. During the reign of the last three Seuna kings, a great deal of literature in verse and prose, on astrology, medicine, Puranas, Vedanta, kings and courtiers were created. ब.याच विदेशी कंपन्यांन… N.C.Kelkar's biographical writings, novels of Hari Narayan Apte, Narayan Sitaram Phadke and V. S. Khandekar, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's nationalist literature and plays of Mama Varerkar and Kirloskar. The Kadamba script and its variants have been historically used to write Marathi in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates. Tucker, R., 1976. [60][61] Gradually with other writers like Namdeo Dhasal (who founded Dalit Panther), these Dalit writings paved way for the strengthening of Dalit movement. [74] The Marathi version of Devanagari, called Balbodh, is similar to the Hindi Devanagari alphabet except for its use for certain words. [86] Unlike most other Indo-Aryan languages, Marathi has three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. Standard Operating Procedure for online hearings through video conferencing. Shridhar Kulkarni came from the Pandharpur area and his works are said to have superseded the Sanskrit epics to a certain extent. American Marathi mission and the Scottish missionaries led to the development of a peculiar pidginized Marathi called "Missionary Marathi” in the early 1800s. Tukaram wrote over 3000 abhangs or devotional songs. Other Marathi–Konkani languages and dialects spoken in Maharashtra include Maharashtrian Konkani, Malvani, Sangameshwari, Agri, Andh, Warli, Vadvali and Samavedi. English is applicable in This period also saw the development of Powada (ballads sung in honor of warriors), and Lavani (romantic songs presented with dance and instruments like tabla). Marathi and Hindi are mostly understood all over the state. Districts :35. [9] The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. उद्योगांची भरभराट आणि प्रत्येक हाताला काम देणा.या या मुंबईने करोडो लोकांना आपल्यात सामावुन घेतले आहे. [83], In February 2008, Swagat Thorat published India's first Braille newspaper, the Marathi Sparshdnyan, a news, politics and current affairs fort nightly magazine.[85]. Notable grammarians of this period were Tarkhadkar, A.K.Kher, Moro Keshav Damle, and R.Joshi[56]. States within India have the liberty and powers to specify their own official language(s) through legislation. प फ ब भ म Mukundaraja bases his exposition of the basic tenets of the Hindu philosophy and the yoga marga on the utterances or teachings of Shankaracharya. Krishnadayarnava and Sridhar were poets during the Peshwa period. Except for Father Stephen's Krista Purana in the Latin script in the 1600s, Marathi has mainly been printed in Devanagari because William Carey, the pioneer of printing in Indian languages, was only able to print in Devanagari. [33] Mukteshwar translated the Mahabharata into Marathi; Tukaram (1608–49) transformed Marathi into a rich literary language. They include some stunning forts that stand proudly in Maharashtra. You will also find a number of people speaking Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu and a medley of South Indian languages. ‘Shocked’ by Maharashtra Governor’s language, Sharad Pawar tells Narendra Modi Staff Reporter Mumbai , October 13, 2020 21:29 IST Updated: October 13, 2020 23:03 IST A Survey of Marathi Dialects. The Maharasthrians speak Marathi language which is a part of the southern group of Indo-Aryan languages. [62] Notable Dalit authors writing in Marathi include Arun Kamble, Shantabai Kamble, Raja Dhale, Namdev Dhasal, Daya Pawar, Annabhau Sathe, Laxman Mane, Laxman Gaikwad, Sharankumar Limbale, Bhau Panchbhai, Kishor Shantabai Kale, Narendra Jadhav, Keshav Meshram, Urmila Pawar, Vinay Dharwadkar, Gangadhar Pantawane, Kumud Pawde and Jyoti Lanjewar. Marathwada (Aurangabad Divisio… [92] Prior to these Marathi equivalents, words from other languages were widely used, which was unacceptable to Savarkar. Officially, all divisions save one are named after the district where the headquarters of the division is located. [59] His first collection of stories, Jevha Mi Jat Chorali (जेव्हा मी जात चोरली, "When I Stole My Caste"), published in 1963, created a stir in Marathi literature with its passionate depiction of a cruel society and thus brought in new momentum to Dalit literature in Marathi. Maharashtra (; Marathi pronunciation: , abbr. An FIR (First Information Report) has been registered on Friday allegedly against 8 to 10 Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) workers for vandalising an Amazon warehouse in Pune, police said. As you can download here the latest syllabus of Postman & Others in PDF format. Older aspirated *tsʰ, dzʱ have lost their onset, with *tsʰ merging with /s/ and *dzʱ being typically realised as an aspirated fricative, [zʱ]. Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include: A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation and are considered to be assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. An IPA chart of all contrastive sounds in Marathi is provided below. The Goa, Daman, and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the official language but provides that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". The phoneme inventory of Marathi is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages. He also founded the popular Marathi periodical of that era called Kesari in 1881. त थ द ध न As with other Indic languages, there are distinct names for the fractions ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2, and ​3⁄4. From the thirteenth century until 1950, Marathi, especially for business use, was written in the Modi alphabet, a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing.[81]. Infact, this language is spoken by the majority of population living in the state. Maharashtra is the world's second most populous first-level administrative country sub-division. The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature, drama, music and film. [34] Unlike varkari saints, his writing has a strong militant expression to it. Tulpule, Shankar Gopal and Anne Feldhaus. In area it is the third-biggest state of India. He is most known for translating the Mahabharata and the Ramayana in Marathi but only a part of the Mahabharata translation is available and the entire Ramayana translation is lost. 'Marathyancha Itihaas' by Dr. Kolarkar, Shrimangesh Publishers, Nagpur, 'History of Medieval Hindu India from 600 CE to 1200 CE, by C. V. Vaidya, Marathi Sahitya (Review of the Marathi Literature up to I960) by Kusumavati Deshpande, Maharashtra Information Centre, New Delhi. Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages. 40 German Language jobs available in Pune, Maharashtra on Indeed.com. list of most spoken languages in the world, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Abstract of Language Strength in India: 2011 Census", "Marathi Culture, History and Heritage in Mauritius", "Marathi may become the sixth classical language", "Dept. प्रत्येक हाताला काम देणा.या या मुंबईने करोडो लोकांना आपल्यात सामावुन घेतले आहे [ 38 ] as per Order of of... 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