Connections can be made as seen in the circuit diagram by clicking and dragging the mouse from one connecting terminal to the other connecting terminal of the devices to be connected. Theory:-A Semiconductor diode is prepared by joining P and N sections of a semi conducting material like germanium or silicon. Apparatus:-Experimental kit and patch cords. What is the Difference Between GSM and CDMA? From the plot at which point of voltage the spike in current is noticed that voltage value is referred to as Zener breakdown voltage. When the breakdown region is approxi-mately reached, then the V S – V Z = V R; 8V – 6V = 2V. Ptype semiconductor will have excess amount of holes in configuration and N type semiconductor will have excess amount of electrons. I L = 0.10/6 = 16mA. the diode is connected to the positive terminal and N-re-gion to the negative University. Initially, the voltage is increased in PN junction diode in the forward direction. This results in the formation of more free electrons. This is to compensate for the damage that occurs in the case of a pn junction diode when the reverse bias exceeds the breakdown voltage and thereby . 3. Design a zener voltage regulator circuit to drive a load of 6V, 100mW from an unregulated Input supply of Vmin = 8V, Vmax = 12V using a 6V zener diode? Here the Zener diode acts like an ordinary diode.When a forward voltage is applied, current flows through it. A Zener diode is a special type of diode designed to reliably allow current to flow "backwards" when a certain set reverse voltage, known as the Zener voltage, is reached.. Zener diodes are manufactured with a great variety of Zener voltages and some are even variable. Further, these again collide with remaining stationary ions and this process continues it is referred to as. To draw the voltage-current (V-I) characteristic curves of a Zener diode and to determine its knee voltage, forward resistance and reverse breakdown voltage. Hence the forward characteristic is Difference Between Von Neumann and Harvard Architecture? As the applied reverse voltage tends to increase that result in the increment of the width of the depletion region. A graph is drawn taking the reverse bias y-axis. The circuit diagram to plot the VI characteristics of a zener diode is shown. As it has the property of maintaining the low voltages even though high voltages are applied. As the applied reverse voltage tends to increase that result in the increment of the width of the depletion region. Once the applied voltage exceeds the value of  voltage it tends to conduct. In the forward bias, the P- region of flow of current. The symbol for a zener diode is shown in Below Figure. Figure (c) Zener diode in reverse bias . is determined from the graph as shown. terminal of the DC power supply. increased only up to the specified range in the forward (0 – 2 V) and reverse The Zener diode mainly operates in reverse biased condition. Academic year. (0 – 15 V) directions. circuit diagram. The reverse biasing means the n-type material of the diode is connected to the positive terminal of the supply and the P-type material is connected to the negative terminal of the supply. Theory. 1: Forward Bias Condition Fig. To have a detailed understanding of Zener diode and its working, you should also read up … Insert Key Button:This is used to insert key on the switch connected with battery.This key is only activated when the connection is perfect. If a voltage beyond Zener breakdown voltage is employed, Zener breakdown takes place. are taken as negative. Consider the experiment below, The circuit describes a 3.3v zener diode based voltage shifter. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. occurs at a particular voltage called Zener voltage V. The breakdown voltage of the Zener diode A zener diode is a silicon pn junction device that is designed for operation in … Use of Zener Diode as Clipper. Then simultaneously note down the voltmeter and ammeter readings. Zener diodes are used for voltage regulation, as reference elements, surge suppressors, and in switching applications and clipper circuits. Similarly, experiment by keeping the diode in forwarding bias and tabulate the readings. Even there exist some minority carriers which gain some energy because of increment of reverse voltage. flow of current. Usually, the condition of the diode with basic p-n as its junction during reverse bias is that there is no chance of conduction because the depletion region width is comparatively high. 2. The magnitude of zener voltage is dependent on the amount of doping. Clipping Circuit is used to prevent the output voltage from exceeding pre-determined voltage without altering the input signal or waveform. Zener diode temperature characteristic It can be seen in the example given that there is a noticeable difference between the specification for the Zener diode reverse voltage at 0°C and 50°C. However, the Zener Diode or Breakdown Diode, as they are sometimes referred too, are basically the same as the standard PN junction diode but they are specially designed to have a low and specified Reverse Breakdown Voltage which takes advantage of any reverse voltage applied to it. A Zener diode not only allows current to flow from anode to cathode but also, in the reverse direction on reaching the Zener voltage. Calculate static and dynamic resistance of the Zener diode in both forward and reverse biased conditions (before, after break down voltages). The P type has excess Due to the gain in kinetic energy of the minority carriers, these free electrons in movement collide with the stationary ions. Operation of Zener Diode: Zener diodes are normally used only in the reverse bias direction. 2019/2020 Fig. Based on the requirement of the voltage for the particular device the diode with that particular breakdown voltage has been chosen. Because of this reason when the reverse voltage has applied the width of the depletion region tends to minimize. There are two ammeters present in the circuit. Just as cut in voltage in normal diode here it is Zener voltage. Unlike ordinary PN junction diode, the Hence in this way, the experiment is performed so that the breakdown voltage value can be found. Precaution. current are taken as positive. 11. Choose Zener Diode: This combo box is used to select different zener diodes having different zener voltage Series Resistance: Value of the Series Resistance can be directly input here.. Slider. Voltage regulator. Controls . the same for both PN junction diode and Zener diode. As there exist the maximum concentration of the impure atoms in it. Instead of a straight line representing the cathode, the zener diode has a bent line that reminds you of the letter Z (for zener). Figure 2: Zener diode resistance. forward characteristics is calculated. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM . The voltage corresponding to the dotted or turn-on voltage of the diode. To construct a zener voltage regulator and experimentally determine the range over which the zener maintains a constant output voltage. chung chinngee. supply. This article explains the working of different diode clipper circuits like Positive and Negative Diode Clippers, Biased Clipper circuit, and Combinational Clipper Circuit with the help of circuit diagrams and waveforms. Procedure: Forward Bias Characteristics: 1. Zener resistance (Rz): The diode exhibits some resistance as evident from the IV characteristics. Zener diode applications. Once the values are noted the plot of characteristics curves between voltage and current is plotted. In the reverse bias, Zener breakdown It is operated in breakdown region, and the current is limited by dynamic resistance called zener impedance. 5. Tags : Physics Practical Experiment Physics Practical Experiment, Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail, Voltage-Current Characteristics of a Zener Diode. The reciprocal of the slope gives the Zener Diode acts as a normal diode when the applied voltage is less than the Zener breakdown voltage. In zener diode, electric current flows from both anode to cathode and cathode to anode. Zener diode circuit for PSU with series transistor. This has been done by connecting the diode in reverse bias voltage and current readings are tabulated. But due to higher doping concentration, higher current flows through the Zener diode.In the third quadrant, the magic happens. The connections are made as given in the Course. Find Zener Breakdown Voltage in Reverse Biased conditions. The Ptype and N type semiconductors represent positive and negative type semiconductors. Because of carrier multiplication, a huge multiple of free electrons are created and the complete region of the diode becomes conductive resulting in the breakdown known as avalanche breakdown. Unlike ordinary PN junction diode, the The zener diode of zener voltage V Z is connected reversly across the load resistance R L across which constant output voltage E O is required.. and forward resistance can be determined as explained in the previous experiment. This needs to be taken into account if the circuit and equipment in which the Zener diode is to be used is subject to temperature change. To the circuit, the reverse voltage applied varies slowly. Zener diode functions like an ordinary The zener diode tester circuit functions from a regular 9 volt battery no line supply or special high voltage battery simply being needed. It is read as n-type of Zener diode and the other as p-type. EXPERIMENT: DIODE & ZENER DIODE Objective:- To study the forward and reverse bias characteristics of diode and zener diode. The circuit diagram for the voltage shifter is illustrated below. When the positive polarity is at the anode – the diode is forward biased and is conducting. To see the circuit diagram, click on the 'Show/hide circuit diagram' check box seen inside the simulator window. This value of the Zener voltage is properly adjusted at the time of manufacturing by the proper concentration in. As the minimum voltage applied to the circuit exceeds one can observe sudden spikes in ammeter connected to the diode. Generally, this is not the case in the Zener diode. The voltage applied beyond this limit Objective: To study and verify the functionalityof Zener diode in forward bias and reverse bias and to Plot Volt-Ampere Characteristics of Zener Diode. The series resistance R is used to absorb the output voltage fluctuations, so as to maintain constant output voltage across R L.. The VI characteristics of the Zener diode is described through the graph, mentioned in the figure below. In case of occurring of  break down further, there is no possibility of occurrence of avalanche breakdown. The forward voltage and the forward circuit diagram. forward resistance of the diode. 2: Reverse Bias Condition ... Zener diode is a P-N junction diode specially designed to operate in the reverse biased mode. The symbol of zener diode is similar to the normal p-n junction diode, but with bend edges on the vertical bar. The circuit connection is shown in fig(5). VI characteristics of zener diode The below figure is the zener diode symbol. First identify the terminals of Zener diode, there will be a black colored circular band on one side of the Zener diode. The circuit for studying the forward bias characteristics of a Zener diode is as shown in the figure1. As soon as the diode exceeds the threshold value the electrons that are in the covalent bonds tend to come out in the depletion region so that it can make depletion region conductive. One is connected in series to the diode whereas other is connected in series to the resistor. In a zener diode based voltage shifter, the circuit, lowers the output voltage, by a value equal to the breakdown voltage of the particular zener diode that is used. It is called the V-I characteristics of a general p – n junction diode. steps of 0.5V. Experiment No.4 Zener diode Characteristics Object: To study and measure the effects of forward and reverse bias on the zener diode current. 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